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Old 09-18-2011, 12:25 PM
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Default Stripe-headed Brush Finch

The Stripe-headed Brush Finch (Arremon torquatus), also known as the Stripe-headed Brush-finch, is a species of bird in the Emberizidae family. It is found in north-western Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and northern and western Venezuela. It is generally common in forest and dense second growth, mainly at altitudes of 2,000 to 3,000 metres (6,600 to 9,800 ft), but locally it occurs far lower.



Taxonomy

Until recently, the Stripe-headed Brush Finch was placed in the genus Buarremon.

The Stripe-headed Brush Finch often includes the Black-headed Brush-finch (A. atricapillus) as a subspecies, but the distributions of the two approach each other closely in Colombia with no evidence of intergradation. When split, the taxon costaricensis of Costa Rica and western Panama has been treated as a monotypic species (the Grey-striped Brush-finch, A. costaricensis), a subspecies of the Stripe-headed Brush-finch, or a subspecies of the Black-headed Brush-finch, with most recent authorities preferring the last treatment. Even with these as separate species, considerable racial variation exists in the Stripe-headed Brush-finch. Based on ecology, morphology, song, and molecular work it has recently been suggested that it should be split into six species (in addition to before mentioned A. atricapillus and A. costaricensis).Approximately from south to north these are:



Arremon torquatus (with subspecies fimbriatus and borelli) in the Andes from north-western Argentina to far southern Peru.
Arremon assimilis (with subspecies larensis, nigrifrons and poliophrys) in the Andes from Peru to Venezuela.
Arremon perijanus (monotypic) in the Perijá Mountains on the border of Colombia and Venezuela.
Arremon basilicus (monotypic) in the Santa Marta Mountains in Colombia.
Arremon phaeopleurus (monotypic) in the western Venezuelan Coastal Range.
Arremon phygas (monotypic) in the eastern Venezuelan Coastal Range.




References

^ a b c Ridgely, R. S., & G. Tudor. (1989). Birds of South America. The Oscine Passerines. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-857217-4
^ Cadena, C. D., J. Klicka and R. E. Ricklefs. (2007). Evolutionary differentiation in the Neotropical montane region: molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of Buarremon brush-finches (Aves, Emberizidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 44(3): 993-1016.
^ a b Cadena, C. D., and A. M. Cuervo (2009). Molecules, ecology, morphology, and songs in concert: how many species is Arremon torquatus (Aves: Emberizidae)? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 99(1): 152-176

BirdLife International 2006. Buarremon torquatus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 25 July 2007.
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